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Writing Years 1 and 2


In Years 1 and 2 pupils:

• Say first and then write to tell others about ideas.

• Write for a variety of purposes.

• Plan by talking about ideas and writing notes.

• Use some of the characteristic features of the type of writing used.

• Write, review and improve.

• Use well-chosen adjectives to add detail.

• Use names of people, places and things.

• Use well-chosen adjectives.

• Use nouns and pronouns for variety.

• Use adverbs for extra detail.

• Re-read writing to check it makes sense.

• Use the correct tenses.

• Organise writing in line with its purpose.

• Write about more than one idea.

• Group related information.

• Write so that other people can understand the meaning of sentences.

• Sequence sentences to form clear narratives.

• Convey ideas sentence by sentence.

• Join sentences with conjunctions and connectives.

• Vary the way sentences begin.

• Sit correctly and hold a pencil correctly.

• Begin to form lower-case letters correctly.

• Form capital letters.

• Form digits 0-9.

• Understand letters that are formed in similar ways.

• Form lower-case letters of a consistent size.

• Begin to join some letters.

• Write capital letters and digits of consistent size.

• Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.

• Spell words containing 40+ learned phonemes.

• Spell common exception words (the, said, one, two and the days of the week).

• Name letters of the alphabet in order.

• Use letter names to describe spellings of words.

• Add prefixes and suffixes, learning the rule for adding s and es as a plural marker for nouns, and the third person singular marker for verbs (I drink - he drinks).

• Use the prefix un.

• Use suffixes where no change to the spelling of the root word is needed: helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest.

• Use spelling rules.

• Write simple sentences dictated by the teacher.

• Spell by segmenting words into phonemes and represent them with the correct graphemes.

• Learn some new ways to represent phonemes.

• Spell common exception words correctly.

• Spell contraction words correctly (can’t, don’t).

• Add suffixes to spell longer words (-ment, -ness, -ful and -less).

• Use the possessive apostrophe. (singular) (for example, the girl’s book)

• Distinguish between homophones and near-homophones.

• Leave spaces between words.

• Use the word ‘and’ to join words and sentences.

• Begin to punctuate using a capital letter for the name of people, places, the days of the week and I.

• Use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms.

• Use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation and command.

• Use extended noun phrases to describe and specify (e.g. the blue butterfly).

• Use subordination (when, if, that or because).

• Use coordination (or, and, but).

• Use some features of standard written English.

• Use the present and past tenses correctly, including the progressive form.

• Discuss writing with the teacher and other pupils.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing: word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing: verb, tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma.

• Read aloud writing clearly enough to be heard by peers and the teacher.

• Read aloud writing with some intonation.

Writing Years 3 and 4


In Years 3 and 4 pupils:

• Write for a wide range of purposes using the main features identified in reading.

• Use techniques used by authors to create characters and settings.

• Compose and rehearse sentences orally.

• Plan, write, edit and improve.

• Create characters, settings and plots.

• Use alliteration effectively.

• Use similes effectively.

• Use a range of descriptions phrases including some collective nouns.

• Use organisational devices such as headings and sub headings.

• Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause.

• Use connectives that signal time, shift attention, inject suspense and shift the setting.

• Organise paragraphs around a theme.

• Sequence paragraphs.

• Use a mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences.

• Write sentences that include: conjunctions, adverbs, direct speech, punctuated correctly, clauses and adverbial phrases.

• Join letters, deciding which letters are best left un-joined.

• Make handwriting legible by ensuring downstrokes of letters are parallel and letters are spaced appropriately.

• Use prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them.

• Spell further homophones.

• Spell correctly often misspelt words.

• Write sentences dictated by the teacher.

• Show an awareness of how writing differs from spoken language by:

extending sentences using clauses and connectives such as when, if, because and although; choosing nouns and pronouns appropriately; using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause.

• Using adverbials.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading:

Year 3 - word family, conjunction, adverb, preposition, direct, speech, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’), prefix, consonant, vowel, clause, subordinate clause.


Year 4 - pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial.

• Read aloud writing to a group or whole class, using appropriate intonation.

Writing Years 5 and 6

In Years 5 and 6 pupils:

• Identify the audience for writing.

• Choose the appropriate form of writing using the main features identified in reading.

• Note, develop and research ideas.

• Plan, draft, write, edit and improve.

• Use the techniques that authors use to create characters, settings and plots.

• Create vivid images by using alliteration, similes, metaphors and personification.

• Interweave descriptions of characters, settings and atmosphere with dialogue.

• Guide the reader by using a range of organisational devices, including a range of connectives.

• Choose effective grammar and punctuation.

• Ensure correct use of tenses throughout a piece of writing.

• Write paragraphs that give the reader a sense of clarity.

• Write paragraphs that make sense if read alone.

• Write cohesively at length.

• Write sentences that include:

     • relative clauses

     • modal verbs

     • relative pronouns

     • brackets

     • parenthesis

     • a mixture of active and passive voice

     • a clear subject and object

     • hyphens, colons and semi colons

     • bullet points.

• Write fluently and legibly with a personal style.

• Use prefixes appropriately.

• Spell some words with silent letters (knight, psalm and solemn).

• Distinguish between homophones and other words that are often confused.

• Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that some words need to be learned specifically.

• Use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words.

• Use the first three or four letters of a word to look up the meaning or spelling of words in a dictionary.

• Use a thesaurus.

• Spell the vast majority of words correctly.

• Develop understanding of writing concepts by:

     • Recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing,           including subjunctive forms.

     • Using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence. 

     • Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause. 

     • Using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely.

     • Using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility.

     • Using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an                  implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun.

• Indicate grammatical and other features by:

     • Using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing.

     • Using hyphens to avoid ambiguity.

     • Using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis.

     • Using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses.

     • Using a colon to introduce a list.

     • Punctuating bullet points consistently.

     • Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading:   


Year 5

• relative clause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity.


Year 6 

• active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi- colon, bullet points. • Perform compositions, using appropriate intonation and volume.




Essentials Content © 2016 Chris Quigley Education
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